What to Include in a Cover Letter for a Job
What to Include in Each Section of a Cover Letter
When writing a cover letter, specific information needs to be included: a contact section, a salutation, an introduction to the hiring manager, information on why you are qualified for the job, a closing, and your signature. The way the information is listed and the format depend on how you are sending your letter.
The goal of your cover letter is to make a case for getting selected for a job interview, so it's important to include all required information along with a compelling argument that you're a strong candidate for the position.
It can be time consuming to write a custom cover letter for each job you apply for, but it's important to take the time and effort to show the company why you are a good match. The more you and your skills match the job description, the higher your chances of getting picked for an interview.
Include information in your letter about how you have the requirements the employer is seeking. Don't simply repeat what's in your resume. Your resume lists your skills, but your cover letter should be an opportunity to highlight how you have put those skills to use.
Before you start writing, take the time to review cover letter examples, then make sure that your letter explains how your skills relate to the criteria listed in the job posting. Looking at examples of effective cover letters will give you a starting point for creating your own letter.
Here's what to include in a cover letter to send with a resume when you apply for a job.
01What to List in a Cover Letter Contact Section
When writing a cover letter to mail or to upload to a job board or company website, the first section of your cover letter should include information on how the employer can contact you.
When you send an email cover letter, include your contact information in your signature instead of listing your contact information at the top of the message.
02Choose a Cover Letter Salutation
It's important to include an appropriate salutation at the beginning of the cover letter or message. If you have a contact person for your letter, be sure to include that name in your letter. Consider salutation examples that are appropriate for cover letters and other employment-related correspondence.
03The Body Section of a Cover Letter
The body is the important part of a cover letter or an email message applying for employment. The body of a cover letter includes the paragraphs where you explain why you are interested in and qualified for the posted job. Be specific by referencing in this part of the letter the employer's job requirements as listed in the job posting.
04Include Keywords in Your Letter
Including keywords related to the jobs for which you are applying in your cover letters can help you get selected for a job interview. These are specific words hiring managers look for when considering applications. As hiring processes have become automated, online applicant tracking systems are programmed to search for keywords.
05Choose an Appropriate Closing
Make sure to close your letter in a professional manner.
06How to Add Your Signature to the Letter
What is included in a cover letter signature depends on whether you are sending or uploading a cover letter document or using an email message as your cover letter. Hard copies of letters should be signed by hand. Scanning your section to include on PDFs can be a nice touch, while emails should include a professional electronic signature that includes your contact information.
07What to Include in an Email Cover Letter
The body of an email cover letter should contain the same information as a document cover letter, but two big differences are the subject line and your contact information. Follow instructions for the subject line. Many employers ask that specific information be included in the subject line. Follow those instructions carefully. Contact information should be included with your electronic signature.
A cover letter can demonstrate to a hiring manager why you are the best fit for a position, so it's worth your time and effort to get it just right. However, it can be challenging to craft an effective cover letter that showcases your skills without making you seem self-important or succumbing to cliches.
To help you stay clear of the most treacherous cover letter pitfalls, Business News Daily asked hiring managers and business owners for the absolute worst thing a candidate can include in his or her cover letter. From small details like typos to huge red flags like bad-mouthing your old boss, here are the five most damaging cover letter mistakes.
1. Highlighting any lack of skills
It's easy to feel vulnerable when applying for a job, especially if you know that you have limited experience with some of the skills the position requires. However, starting off a cover letter by underselling yourself or drawing attention to the skills or knowledge you are lacking is never the way to go.
"I have seen one too many cover letters with the following phrase: 'Although I do not yet have...' If you do not have something, why are you emphasizing it?" said Lavie Margolin, author, consultant and career coach.
Instead, Margolin advised job seekers to focus on writing about existing skills, experiences and talents that will be of interest to the potential employer.
"If you are looking for a job, then you are in the sales business. What you write in your cover letter should most effectively sell the skills, experience and abilities that you do have, as opposed to emphasizing those things that are lacking. Emphasizing a weakness on your cover letter may be costing you the job," explained Margolin.
2. Lack of attention to detail
Sometimes job seekers get so caught up with trying to find the best way to express their big ideas that they forget to pay close attention to the fine details. Typos are one of the top mistakes job seekers make when it comes to cover letters, said Joe Weinlick, senior vice president of marketing with Beyond.
Rigorously proofreading your cover letter will give your great content an opportunity to shine.
"Spell-check is your friend. Use it, but don't rely on it," said Weinlick. "Print out your cover letter, read it from start to finish and make sure there aren't any typos before sending it out. Your cover letter is the first impression you make on a hiring manager — make sure it's a good one."
You can reuse parts of your cover letter when applying for similar positions with different companies. However, failing to update the company information for each letter is an unforgivable offense.
"Nothing will get your cover letter thrown in the recycling bin faster than giving the wrong company name," said Chaz Pitts-Kyser, founder and author of Careeranista.
According to Pitts-Kyser, checking for accuracy includes making sure you have the correct company name and address, specifying the position for which you are applying, and including the name of the hiring manager, if available.
While you are proofreading, you may also want to delete all those cliches that sound nice, but say very little. Instead of using vague words to describe your work ethic or experience, provide specific examples that demonstrate the qualities that you'd like to highlight.
"Don't use buzzwords," said Bob Kovalsky, vice president of North Highland. "Including descriptors such as 'detail-oriented,' 'hardworking,' 'team player' and 'proactive' doesn't tell HR managers anything about your experience."
3. Remaining stuck in the past
Maybe you were let go from your last job or maybe you are just looking for new opportunities. But regardless of the reason for your job search, don't spend the limited space available of your cover letter focusing on your past.
"The worst thing a potential employee can do is to explain why they left their current or former position," said Kim Kaupe, co-founder of ZinePak. "It's like starting out a first date by talking about your ex! I don't want to hear about your past; I want to hear about your now and future, and how you are going to become an asset to my company."
Steering clear of the past is especially important if you had a contentious relationship with an employer.
"Saying that you're looking for a new opportunity because your previous employer was unfair or you had an incompetent boss will only make you look bad," said Tracey Russell, talent acquisition professional for 5-Star Staffing Solutions. "Oftentimes, if this type of negative information is in the cover letter, recruiters won't even look at the resume," explained Russell.
4. Talking money too soon
There is a time and place to discuss salary during the hiring process, but your cover letter isn't it. Lisa Benson, president and CEO of Mary Kraft Staffing & HR Solutions, recommends that job seekers not provide any unsolicited salary information in their cover letter, "unless they are specifically asked to do so, particularly if there is a disparity between what is advertised or indicated in the ad they are responding to."
"No prospective employer wants to hire someone who is only about the money," Benson added.
5. Making it all about you
Another common mistake that applicants make is using their cover letter to boast about their talents without acknowledging how they will use these skills to benefit a perspective employer.
"The worst thing a candidate can do in their cover letter is make it all about themselves and what they're looking for," said Ian Yates, co-founder and managing director of Fitzii. "The best thing to do is focus on why they'll be a great fit, how they'll make a contribution and what they've done, or will do, to support [the organization]."
"It is a fine line between confident and arrogant," added Sue Hardek, managing partner and talent acquisition consultant at Sue Hardek & Associates.
She noted that any candidate should avoid "overselling him or herself, or being boastful about accomplishments and strengths." Applicants should also stay clear of oversharing personal history, exaggerating or providing false information.
Ultimately, the job seekers who do their homework – researching the company, learning about industry trends, and identifying specific ways they can address challenges faced by the business – have a much better shot at setting the right tone with their cover letters.
Additional reporting by Brittney Morgan. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article.