Lohardaga Mla Bibliography

This article is about the municipality in Uttar Pradesh, India. For its namesake district, see Aligarh district, for the 2015 Hindi film, see Aligarh (film).

Aligarh ( ( listen); formerly Allygurh & Koil) is a city in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh that is famous for lock industries and the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district. It lies 307 kilometres (191 mi) northwest of Kanpur and is approximately 145 kilometres (90 mi) southeast of the capital, New Delhi. Notable as the seat of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh is one of the largest cities in Uttar Pradesh, and is the 55th largest city in India.[2]

History[edit]

Before the 18th century, Aligarh was known as Kol, the history of the district up until the 12th century is obscure.[3]

According to an 1875 gazetteer written by Edwin T. Atkinson, the name Kol was given to the city by Balarama, who slew the great Asura (demon) Kol there and, with the assistance of the Ahirs, subdued this part of the doab.[4] In another account, Atkinson points out a "legend" that Kol was founded by the Dor tribe of Rajputs in 372, this is further confirmed by an old fort, the ruined Dor fortress, which lies at the city centre.[citation needed]

Some time before the Muslim conquest, Kol was held by the Dor Rajputs, at the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran.[4] Statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been found in excavations where the citadel of Koil stood, indicating a Buddhist influence. Hindu remains indicate that the citadel probably had a Hindu temple after the Buddhist temple.[4]

In 1194, Qutb-ud-din Aibak marched from Delhi to Kol, "one of the most celebrated fortresses of Hind".[4] Qutb-ud-din Aibak appointed Hisam-ud-din Ulbak as the first Muslim governor of Kol.[4]

Kol is mentioned in Ibn Battuta's Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15 ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, emperor of the Mongol Chinese Yuan dynasty, travelled to Kol city en route to the coast at Cambay (in Gujarat) in 1341.[5] According to Battuta, it would appear that the district was then in a very disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to assist in relieving Jalali from an attacking body of Hindus and lost an officer in the fight. Ibn Batuta calls Kol "a fine town surrounded by mango groves", from these same groves the environs of Kol would appear to have acquired the name Sabzabad or "the green country".[4]

In the reign of Akbar, Kol was made a Sirkar and included the dasturs of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and Akbarabad.[4] Akbar and Jahangir visited Kol on hunting expeditions. Jahangir clearly mentions the forest of Kol, where he killed wolves.[3]

During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi, Muhammad, son of 'Umar, was the governor of Kol, he built a fort at Kol and named the city Muhammadgarh, after himself, in 1524–25. Sabit Khan, who was then the governor of this region, of Farrukh Siyar and Muhammad Shah, rebuilt the old Lodhi fort and named the town after himself: Sabitgarh.

The Jat ruler, Surajmal, with help from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army, occupied the fort of Koil. Koil was renamed Ramgarh and finally, when a Shia commander, Najaf Khan, captured it, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort (also called Aligarh Qila), as it stands today, was built by French engineers under the command of French officers Benoît de Boigne and Perron.[3]

Battle of Aligarh (1803)[edit]

The Battle of Aligarh was fought on 1 September 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) at Aligarh Fort. The British 76th Regiment, now known as the Duke of Wellington's Regiment besieged the fort, which was under the control of the French officer Perron, and established British rule. In 1804, the Aligarh district was formed by the union of the second, third and fourth British divisions with the addition of Anupshahr from Muradabad and Sikandra Rao from Etawa, on 1 August 1804, Claude Russell was appointed the first Collector of the new district.[6]

Administration[edit]

Aligarh district is divided into five tehsils, namely Kol Tehsil, Khair Tehsil, Atrauli, Gabhana and Iglas. These tehsils are further divided into 12 blocks.

The city is administered by Nagar Nigam Aligarh (Municipal Corporation), which is responsible for performing civic administrative functions administered by Mayor and Municipal Commissioner (PCS Officer). Infrastructure development of the city is looked after by the Aligarh Development Authority (ADA) administered by Divisional Commissioner (Chairman) and Vice-Chairman (PCS Officer).

Aligarh is the headquarters of Aligarh Police Range and Aligarh Division. A DIG looks after Aligarh for legal condition and law; a Commissioner looks for four district of Aligarh Division(Aligarh, Etah, Hathras, Kasganj).

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Aligarh is located at the coordinates 27°53′N78°05′E / 27.88°N 78.08°E / 27.88; 78.08.[7] It has an elevation of approximately 178 metres (587 feet). The city is in the middle portion of the doab, the land between the Ganges and the Yamuna rivers. The G.T. Road passes through. It is 134 km from capital of India via NH-91.

Climate[edit]

Aligarh has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, typical of north-central India. Summers start in April and are hot with temperatures peaking in May, the average temperature range is 28–38 °C (82–100 °F). The monsoon season starts in late June, continuing till early October, bringing high humidity. Aligarh gets most of its annual rainfall of 800 millimetres (31 in) during these months. Temperatures then decrease, and winter sets in December, and continues till February. Temperatures range between 5–11 °C (41–52 °F). Winters in Aligarh are generally mild, but 2011–12 experienced the lowest temperature of 1 °C. The fog and cold snaps are extreme.

Climate data for Aligarh
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)30.7
(87.3)
33.3
(91.9)
41.7
(107.1)
44.8
(112.6)
47.5
(117.5)
46.7
(116.1)
44.5
(112.1)
42.1
(107.8)
40.2
(104.4)
41.7
(107.1)
36.1
(97)
32.8
(91)
47.5
(117.5)
Average high °C (°F)20.6
(69.1)
23.6
(74.5)
30.0
(86)
36.8
(98.2)
40.1
(104.2)
39.3
(102.7)
34.6
(94.3)
33.2
(91.8)
33.8
(92.8)
33.0
(91.4)
28.3
(82.9)
22.5
(72.5)
31.3
(88.3)
Average low °C (°F)7.4
(45.3)
9.5
(49.1)
14.1
(57.4)
20.1
(68.2)
24.5
(76.1)
26.6
(79.9)
26.0
(78.8)
25.4
(77.7)
23.8
(74.8)
18.8
(65.8)
12.9
(55.2)
8.5
(47.3)
18.1
(64.6)
Record low °C (°F)0.0
(32)
1.7
(35.1)
3.9
(39)
10.9
(51.6)
15.5
(59.9)
18.6
(65.5)
19.9
(67.8)
19.9
(67.8)
14.8
(58.6)
11.0
(51.8)
2.9
(37.2)
1.2
(34.2)
0.0
(32)
Average precipitation mm (inches)15.2
(0.598)
13.9
(0.547)
8.5
(0.335)
8.8
(0.346)
21.0
(0.827)
68.5
(2.697)
217.7
(8.571)
247.4
(9.74)
104.1
(4.098)
31.4
(1.236)
4.2
(0.165)
11.0
(0.433)
751.8
(29.598)
Average rainy days1.51.41.00.92.24.110.211.65.21.40.50.840.7
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[8][9]

Demographics[edit]

The provisional data of 2011 census showed the Aligarh urban area with a population of 12,74,408. Males outnumber females 4,61,772 to 4,12,636 (2011), the literacy rate was 70.54 per cent.[11]

Economy[edit]

The city is an agricultural trade centre.[12] Agricultural product processing and manufacturing are important.[13]

Aligarh is an important business centre of Uttar Pradesh and is most famous for its lock industry. Aligarh locks are exported across the world; in 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English lock firm in Aligarh. In 1890, the company initiated production of locks on a small scale here.[14]

Aligarh is famous for brass hardware and sculpture. Today, the city holds thousands of manufacturers, exporters and suppliers involved in the brass, bronze, iron and aluminium industries.

Aligarh is a big centre of zinc dye- casting. There are thousands of pneumatic hot chamber die casting machines.[citation needed] But many exporters have adopted latest technology and have installed fully automatic, computerised hot chamber machines. Indian Dye-casting Industries at Sasni Gate Area is the most renowned[peacock term] manufacturer in this line and they are capable of meeting international quality norms.

Harduaganj Thermal Power Station (also referred as Kasimpur Power House) is 15 km from the city. Narora Atomic Power Station is located 50 km from Aligarh. Despite its proximity to two large power stations, frequent power cuts are normal in Aligarh.

Aligarh hosts Heinz-sauce manufacturing unit in Manzurgarhi, Satha sugar factory on the Aligarh-Kasimpur Power House route and a cement factory of UltraTech Cement company. Indian Oil Bottling Plant exits at Andla in Khair. Wave Distillery (Kingfisher beer) located at Atrauli in Aligarh.

Hicks thermometer has manufacturing in Industrial Estate, Aligarh

Development[edit]

Aligarh is the 55th fastest-growing city in India. Following major development projects are under construction in the city.

  • Govt. Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Chherat
  • Super Speciality Trauma Center at AMU
  • Sports University
  • ISKCON Temple at Harduaganj
  • Shooting Range at Chherat
  • Astro Turf Hockey Stadium in AMU
  • NH-93 Kathpula-Jamalpur Crossing 4 Lane work (Completed Except flyover at Jamalpur Crossing)
  • Aligarh-Khair-Palwal 4 Lane highway work is proposed (10 km. bypass at Khair City and 5 km bypass at Jattari)
  • Aligarh-Moradabad 4 Lane highway work is proposed
  • Golf Corse at AMU Aligarh
  • 5 Star Country Inn Hotel near Aligarh Junction(Will be ready in 2017)
  • A bypass railway line for Goods train

Education[edit]

Main article: List of schools in Aligarh

Besides the Aligarh Muslim University, the city has several colleges and schools.

Locations[edit]

Cultural landmarks[edit]

Aligarh has several popular landmarks. Most notable few of them are Aligarh fort, Another one is Khereshwar Temple which is the Birth Place of Swami Shri Haridas Ji, Teerthdham Mangalayatan Mandir and Dor fortress (1524), which is now in ruins, lies at the city's centre; its site is in the area now called Upper Fort (Balai Qila) and is occupied by an 18th-century mosque. The area Shah Jamal is very famous for a Sufi saint Syed Shah Jamal also known as Shamsul Arifeen, of whom the tomb is located at Shahjamal area and surrounded by a Graveyard and because of this famous personality the area got its name, the Sufi Saint is mentioned by Ibne Batuta in his book Travels of Ibne Batuta ; Volume 4. The saint is said to be of Sufi Chishtiya order.

The Annual Cultural Exhibition, popularly known as Numaish, is held at the exhibition ground in January and February.The Land Numaish Ground donated By Nawab Rehmat Ullah Khan Sherwani, The cultural shows takes place at 3 grand stages (Kohinoor, Krishnanjali, Muktakash); in all more than 150 stage events featuring artist from across the India takes place during a period of 28 days. In 2015, for the first time the major cultural programs of Numaish was managed by an Aligarh-based firm SAC Entertainment at Kohinoor stage.[15]

Historical places[edit]

Places of worship[edit]

Khereshwar Temple which is the Birth Place of Swami Shri HARIDAS JI, "Sai Mandir" at Sarsol on G.T. Road. Many old Hindu temples in the city are near Achal Taal (opposite Dharma Samaj College). There are four key temples at four corners of the Achal Taal; all the four temples are Hindu Siddh Peeth. The Tika Ram mandir at centre point is also a renowned temple of the city. Khereshwar Dham is known for an ancient Lord Shiv temple and situated at Haridaspur, Aligarh (3 km from Aligarh). It is one of the famous temple of the city.

Another landmark is Sir Syed Masjid in Aligarh Muslim University's campus.

The city contains tombs of Muslim saints Shah Jamal at Shah Jamal Area Barchi Bahadur was the one of the Descendants of Shah Jamal.[16] Aligarh has a very renowned tomb, Baba Barchi Bahadur, at Kath Pula. Another old Jain temple with fresco painted ceilings is located behind Khirni Gate Police Chowky at Agra Road in the main City.

A famous Jainism Teerth Dhaam "Mangalayatan Teerth Dhaam" was built at Agra Road.

Aligarh Muslim University[edit]

Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is one of the oldest central university, it was established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind, In 1875–78 which later became Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College (MAO College). It was designed to train Muslims for government services in India and prepare them for advanced training in British universities, the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College became Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. It is famous for its Law, Medical and Engineering College. Madrak ka qila

Museums[edit]

Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences maintains 'Museum on History of Medicine and Sciences' and 'Museum on Arts, Culture and Orientalism'. It was established by a family Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman and Syed Ziaur Rahman at the heart of the city and near a busy market of Dodhpur. [17][18]

Media[edit]

Aligarh currently has 5 + 1 FM Radio stations:

  • 92.7 MHz Big FM
  • 94.9 MHz Fever FM
  • 104.6 MHz Tadka FM
  • 94.1 MHz Current FM
  • 101.3 MHz FM Rainbow

One Community FM Radio Station

Film festival[edit]

International short film festival Filmsaaz is being held since 2008 by Aligarh Muslim University.

Culture, folk music and cinema[edit]

Various styles of music and art in folk songs of North India's Braj region include:

Transport[edit]

By rail[edit]

See also: Aligarh railway station

Aligarh Junction railway station is the primary station for Aligarh city and is a major stop on the Delhi-Kolkata route, it is a A-Class railway station. It is one of the oldest railway station of this route, it connects Aligarh to the states of West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, north-east and most of Uttar Pradesh, and important cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bhopal, Indore, Jammu, Gwalior, Lucknow, Jhansi, Puri, Kanpur, Agra and Varanasi. Aligarh railway station handles over 136 trains daily (in both directions) and serves around 204,000 passengers everyday. Aligarh has one Branch Railway Line to Bareily.

Aligarh City has following railway stations:

  • Aligarh Junction: a A-Class Railway Station
  • Somna (Gabhana) railway station
  • Mahrawal railway station
  • Kalua railway station
  • Daudkhan railway station
  • Mandrak railway station
  • Harduaganj railway station(Satha, near Kasimpur Power House)
  • Manjoorgarhi railway station (Chherat)

By road[edit]

Aligarh is 140 km from New Delhi. It is one of the Division of UPSRTC. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) buses serve cities all over the state and cities in Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana.

Aligarh City has two UPSRTC bus stations:

  • Aligarh Depot bus station.
  • Masoodabad (Budh Vihar) Depot bus station
  • ISBT Rasualabad Sarsaul under construction.

There are buses plying from Aligarh to Delhi at frequent intervals via

1) Khair, Tappal, Palval, faridabad, delhi. the route is under construction between Khair and Palval and should be strictly avoided for cars. No toll charges.

2) Khair, Tappal, Yamuna expressway, G Noida, Noida, Delhi, Gurgaon. - Best and recommended Route for Delhi, Noida, Gurgaon. Toll Charges are 120 rs between aligarh and delhi.

3) Old GT Road, Ghaziabad, Delhi. NH 91, it is a four lane highway (Toll road). Toll charges 190 Rs.

Following Highways are connected to Aligarh.

Aligarh City has Mahanagar Bus Service (City Bus Service) which provides local transport to Aligarh.

  • Route-1 J N Medical-Uperkot
  • Route-2 Gandhi Park-Sarsaul
  • Route-3 Ghantarbagh-Quarsi
  • Route-4 Gandhi Park-Boner
  • Route-5 Etah Chungi-Collectrate

By air[edit]

The nearest international airport from Aligarh is Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi. It is 140 km from Aligarh.

Aligarh Airport is in under construction, it is in Dhanipur on NH 91. Dhanipur Air Strip is used as Flying Club, the Government of Uttar Pradesh signed a MoU with the Airports Authority of India (AAI) in February 2014 for the development of the airport.

Notable personalities[edit]

Educationalists[edit]

Spiritualists[edit]

Writers, poets and publishers[edit]

  • Gopaldas Neeraj, poet, recipient of Padma Bhushan
  • Jainendra Kumar, famous Hindi writer
  • Akhlaq Mohammed Khan, pen name Shaharyar, Urdu poet, Bollywood lyricist and served as Professor at Aligarh Muslim University
  • Maitreyi Pushpa, Notable Hindi fiction writer
  • Saghar Nizami, Urdu Poet
  • Qurratulain Hyder, a Padma Bhushan, Urdu novelist, writer and journalist
  • Prem Kishore Patakha, Hindi Humorous Poet
  • Munshi Newal Kishore famous book publisher
  • A.R. Akela, Dalit author and publisher, owner of "Anand Sahitya Sadan"
  • Syed Amin Ashraf, eminent Urdu poet and professor of English at AMU

Historians[edit]

Freedom Fighters[edit]

Film actors[edit]

  • Bharat Bhushan, Bollywood actor, scriptwriter and producer
  • Chandrachur Singh, Bollywood actor
  • Shad Khan, anchor, actor and director
  • Salim Shah, Indian television and film actor
  • Hasan Zaidi, Indian television actor
  • Aadesh Chaudhary, Indian television actor
  • Nitin Chauhaan, Indian television actor
  • Ravindra Jain, Bollywood music director
  • Basharat Peer, Indian journalist and scriptwriter, written script for feature film Haider(2014)
  • Zarina

Sports persons[edit]

Politicians[edit]

  • Sandeep singh, MLA Atrauli, grandson of Sh. Kalyan Singh
  • Thakur Dalveer Singh, MLA from Baruli vidhansabha constituency
  • Sanjeev Raja, Current MLA
  • Satish Kumar Gautam, current MP from, Aligarh (Lok Sabha constituency)
  • Sheela Gautam, Ex MP & owner of Sleepwell
  • Jamal Khwaja, Ex MP
  • Bijendra Singh, Ex MP
  • Thakur Jaiveer Singh, Ex MLA (Now MLC)
  • Chaudhary Sunil Singh, Ex MLC

Medical professionals[edit]

Social activists[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Aligarh in My Days (Interviews of former Vice-Chancellors of Aligarh Muslim University), Ed. Syed Ziaur Rahman, Non-Resident Students' Centre, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 1997.
  • Atkinson, Edward (2010) [1875]. Descriptive And Historical Account of the Aligarh District. Nabu Press. ISBN 1-147-42719-4. 
Church of ascension, Aligarh
SS Masjid beside Strachey Hall, AMU Aligarh
  1. ^"Aligarh City Population Census 2011 | Uttar Pradesh". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  2. ^"Top cities of India by population, Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
  3. ^ abc"Histor11". Aligarhdirectory.com. Archived from the original on 2004-10-11. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  4. ^ abcdefgEdwin T. Atkinson (1875). Descriptive and Historical Account of the Aligarh District. p. 484. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  5. ^The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, by Ross E. Dunn, p. 215
  6. ^Edwin T. Atkinson (1875). Descriptive and Historical Account of the Aligarh District. p. 348. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  7. ^"Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Aligarh". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  8. ^"Aligarh Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved April 15, 2015. 
  9. ^"Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010"(PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original(PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2015. 
  10. ^2011 census of India: Datasheet
  11. ^"Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above"(PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  12. ^"India9.com". India9.com. 7 June 2005. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  13. ^"Britannica". Britannica. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  14. ^Pawan JainPawan Jain (3 June 2003). "Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 13 October 2011. 
  15. ^"Dainik Jagran". Epaper.jagran.com. 29 January 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  16. ^Hoiberg, Dale; Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India. New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica (India). ISBN 0852297602. OCLC 45086947. 
  17. ^"World's 10 weirdest medical museums". Bryan Pirolli for CNN, Travel (May 24, 2013). 
  18. ^"Ibn Sina Academy". Eram Agha for CNN-News18, (November 5, 2017). 

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-11-15 10:07:19

The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA eighth edition, including the list of works cited and in-text citations.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel.

Creating a Works Cited list using the eighth edition

MLA has turned to a style of documentation that is based on a general method that may be applied to every possible source, to many different types of writing. But since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may be found in several different sources, following a set of fixed rules is no longer sufficient.         

The current system is based on a few principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still gives examples of how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This process teaches writers a flexible method that is universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

Here is an overview of the process:

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication, and required punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses, and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (just commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Author

Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

Title of source

The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.

A book should be in italics:

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.  

A website should be in italics:

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.*

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu."Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks:

Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me."Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

*The eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Title of container

Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to containers, which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed, 27 Apr. 2009, www.arcgames.com/en/games/star-trek-online/news/detail/1056940-skewed-%2526-reviewed-interviews-craig. Accessed 15 Mar. 2009.

In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books, or watched a television series on Netflix. You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

Other contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

Note: In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc., are no longer abbreviated.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.

Version

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students.3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

Number

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal,vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Publisher

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive,  www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Note: the publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, a website whose title is the same name as its publisher, a website that makes works available but does not actually publish them (such as YouTube, WordPress, or JSTOR).

Publication date

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999.

Location

You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.

An essay in a book, or an article in journal should include page numbers.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94.

The location of an online work should include a URL.

Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

A physical object that you experienced firsthand should identify the place of location.

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Optional elements

The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of select optional elements that should be part of a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

Date of original publication:

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine.1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

City of publication:

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863.

Date of access:

When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

URLs:

As mentioned above, while the eighth edition recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

DOIs:

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Creating in-text citations using the eighth edition

The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited. For the most part, an in-text citation is the author’s name and page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses:

Imperialism is “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (Said 9).

or

According to Edward W. Said, imperialism is defined by “the practice, the theory, and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory” (9).

Work Cited

Said, Edward W.Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).

Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide your reader with a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

Final thoughts about the eighth edition

The current MLA guidelines teach you a widely applicable skill. Once you become familiar with the core elements that should be included in each entry in the Works Cited list, you will be able to create documentation for any type of source. While the handbook still includes helpful examples that you may use as guidelines, you will not need to consult it every time you need to figure out how to cite a source you’ve never used before. If you include the core elements, in the proper order, using consistent punctuation, you will be fully equipped to create a list of works cited on your own.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

Entire Website

The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2016.

Individual Resources

Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.

 

Russell, Tony, et al. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab, 2 Aug. 2016.

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